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See general referral criteria.

If available, consider behaviour therapy (exposure) or cognitive techniques (ref 199-201).



199 Bisson JI.Early interventions following traumatic events. Psychiatric Ann 2003, 33: 37-44. (BI) The authors review randomized controlled trials and conclude that the evidence base does not support routine early intervention but that multiple session cognitive behavioural early interventions might help.

200a Foa EB, Keane TM, Friedman MJ (eds.) Effective Treatments for PTSD. New York: Guildford Press, 2000. This work summarizes evidence for a wide variety of treatment approaches for Post-traumatic stress disorder. Cognitive therapy and exposure therapy emerge as the psychological treatments with the best evidence for efficacy.

200b Bisson JI., Andrew M. Psychological treatment of Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Protocol for a Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2003. Oxford: Update Software.

201 Marks I, Lovell K, Noshirvani H et al. Treatment of Post-traumatic stress disorder by exposure and/or cognitive restructuring: a controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998, 55: 317-25. (BII) This randomized control trial shows that exposure, cognitive restructuring, or both combined, were equally effective in Post-traumatic stress disorder and better than relaxation without exposure.

Last edited: 26/1/2004

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